Sunday, February 23, 2020
Credit Card Fraud in the USA - Research Paper Example The onus falls on the merchants to pay for the credit card fraud and if it lacks in proper insurance, they have to incur the chargeback fee as well. The US is moving towards a cashless society but credit card theft has become a major concern of retailers, consumers, credit card issuers and the law enforcement agencies (Hearn, 1986). Credit cards were introduced in the 1950s and since then fraudsters have been finding ways to attack the system (Byrne, 2010). According to The Survey of Consumer Payment Choice, there were 176.8 million credit card holders in 2008 and the average cardholder has 3.5 credit cards (Woolsey & Schulz, 2011). Credit cards represent the majority of the total $315 billion US financial fraud loss in 2005 while according to a European study more than 22 million adults were victims to credit card fraud in 2006 (Conlin, 2007). According to the 2009 LexisNexis True Cost of Fraud Study, retailers lose $100bn a year to consumer-facing fraud. Twenty-four percent of all retailers, 43% of whom have a strong online presence, reported increase in losses through credit card fraud. Most card fraud payment losses were borne by the card issuers (59%) followed by the merchants (41%), says Sullivan (2010). In 2006 the total fraud losses were estimated at $3.718bn as per table provided below: Source: Sullivan (2010). The process for approving card payments depends to a large extent on information. The criminals have an incentive to steal this information and this leads to attacks on computers, data breaches and ultimately payment fraud. Card fraud is the highest in the United States than countries such as UK, Spain and Netherlands. Better technology in the payment approval system can help combat fraud to some extent. Online payment approval permits automated checks against wider sets of information such as the cardholderÃ¢â¬â¢s zip code or transaction history (Sullivan, 2010). Criminals gather such information and use it to commit fraud. Criminals steal wa llets, intercept mail and get access to account statements, or even spy and gather information when the card is in use. Video cameras secretly placed can capture valuable information. Phishing and hacking are other modes through which criminals gather information to conduct fraud. Credit and charge card fraud cost cardholders and issuers millions of dollars each year. Earlier the fraud used to occur over the telephone when the fraudster posed as an organization representative and offered incentives in exchange for credit card information. Theft is the most common form of fraud but people can also use the card number without the knowledge of the owner of the card (FTC, 2009). The thief eyes the trash to collect discarded receipts or carbons through which it is possible to obtain the credit card number. Others ways in which fraud can occur is when dishonest clerks make an extra imprint and use the card details to make personal charges. Now the criminals use packet-sniffing programs on the Internet and steal credit card information electronically. The largest case in the US credit card fraud history took place in 2008 when Albert Gonzalez and his team attacked TJX and other companies (Byrne, 2010). They acquired more than 130 million debit and credit card numbers and stole tens of millions of dollars. These were basically of customers of 7-eleven and other retail giants.Ã
Friday, February 7, 2020
E-Compensation Human Resources Information Systems - Assignment Example The development and configuration of the infrastructure requires skilled personnel as well as resources. Another merit of the web-based compensation tool over the client-server and stand-alone PC based compensation tools is that it requires less hardware. This is because most of the hardware required for the web based compensation system are available over the internet and supported by the company hosting the web based services. The client/server and standalone PC based compensation tools require all hardware needed for the compensation system to be available locally. For this reason, the client/server and PC based compensation tools require higher initial cost to setup (Mukherjee, 2012). As much as the client-server based and stand-alone PC based compensation tools require higher initial cost to setup, they offer superior long term savings than the pc based compensation tool. The reason behind the long term saving offered by the client-server and PC based compensation tool is because an organization does not have to pay monthly or annual fees for the services to a third party company. The web based services are offered by id party companies at monthly or annual subscriptions that can result into higher long term costs. On the other hand, companies choosing the client-server and PC based compensation tools require high skilled IT department personnel to support the systems. Therefore, the web based compensation tool is recommendable for the organization stakeholders because it does not require high IT support to support the infrastructure. Moreover, the system can be upgraded and updated at lower costs compared to the client-server and stand-alone PC based services ( Sistare, Shiplett & Buss, 2009). From an employee perspective; the e-Compensation tools can motivate the organizations employees to work harder thus improving their performance. The reason behind motivation is that the efforts of
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Driving Stick Shift Essay Learning to drive a stick shift is one of the things I mastered in life because of the effort and practice IÃ¢â¬â¢ve invested. I can still remember the day I learned how to drive a manual transmission car. My cousin stopped by our house and I asked him to teach me how to drive. The only problem was his car was a stick shift. I honestly got intimidated by those horrendous three pedals and that hair-chilling gear shifter, but nothing stopped me from wanting to learn because I knew it would be worth it and I thought I would make me look cooler. So he grabbed the keys and drove to a parking lot that had a wide empty road. He stopped, turned off the car, got out and said Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, your turn. Ã¢â¬ So I began the initiation into the high art of driving a stick shift. He gave me all the instructions, he told me to press down on the clutch so I can start the car. I kept my left foot on the clutch and put the car in first gear. I slowly released the clutch as I was slowly pressing on the gas pedal. Then, boom! I stalled and the car shut off. My cousin started laughing. I tried to get the car started again and I still stalled on my fifth attempt. He continued laughing while giving me advices. Finally, on my sixth attempt I got the car going. When he saw that I could stop and get the car moving normally and shift gears without grinding the clutch, he gave me the green light to drive to the main streets and freeways. It took me a lot of practices and effort before I got the gist of it. It was all worth it, I actually enjoyed it and promised that my next car would be a stick shift. At first I thought having a stick shift car would only make me look cooler, but when I had my own car I actually learned that itÃ¢â¬â¢s less expensive then automatic cars, gets better gas mileage and most of all itÃ¢â¬â¢s simply more fun!
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Virginity In Chronicle Of A Death by Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Like Water for Chocolate by Laura Esquivel :: Virginity Chronicle Marquez Chocolate Essays
Virginity In Chronicle Of A Death by Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Like Water for Chocolate by Laura Esquivel Latin American society has placed a very high value on women being virgins when they marry. This value is one of the primary themes in Chronicle of a Death foretold by Gabriel Garcia Marquez. In contrast, virginity does not appear to hold significance in Like Water for Chocolate by Laura Esquivel. However this is only on the surface but as one delves into the deeper meanings of each book it almost seems as if the authors view this social doctrine as childish. Throughout the stories contained within both books, a mockery is made out of the idea that celibacy is for those not yet married. The plot of Chronicle of a Death Foretold is totally based on the understanding that maintaining a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s virginity is important enough to kill for and conversely that anyone violating this social moray was risking death. Virginity is viewed as synonymous with honor. This aspect is what Garcia Marquez challenges with the use of irony. Throughout the book, he inserts aspects that speak directly to the importance of this theme and reinforces this concept by use of several devices, of which irony is the most prominent. Ã¢â¬Å"No one would have thought, nor did anyone say, that Angela Vicario wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a virgin. She hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t known any previous fiancÃ © and sheÃ¢â¬â¢d grown up along with her sisters under the rigor of a mother of iron. Even when it was less than two months before she would be married, Pura Vicario wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t let her go out alone with Bayardo San Roman to see the house where they were going to live, but she and the blind father accompanied her to watch over her honor.Ã¢â¬ The idea of protecting her virginity is so important as to have a blind father as a chaperone. This is absurd, to make a blind man to Ã¢â¬Å"watchÃ¢â¬ over Angela Vicario, and is how Gabriel Garcia Marquez ridicules the preconception of pre-marital virginity. The societal value placed on these preconception is also demonstrated in small ways like the name of the mother, Ã¢â¬Å"Pura.Ã¢â¬ Pura in spanish means pure; virginity and pure in this society were one and the same. PuraÃ¢â¬â¢s sole purpose throughout the book is to keep AngelaÃ¢â¬â¢s virginity safe from those who would puncture it, and to punish Angela for making the mistake of losing her virginity before marriage.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
In a play we get to know about a character by what he says what he does and what other people think about him. When the duke abandons the city it cause society to collapse and the whole city to fall into chaos. Any eratical behaviour made by the duke, at the top of the hierarchical pyramid would be amplified as you go down. People at the bottom will want to know what is going on and the people near the top will try and grab a piece of power. In the 17th Century the audience then would of reacted very differently to an audience of today. Back then a audience would think that it was a terrible thing that the duke had done as he is the only one who can do the job as he has the divine right. For them the duke leaving would be a very dramatic story line. However an audience of today would not be as shocked because they are used to a society of so many leaders that if the Priminister went off, yes it would be shocking but there are plenty of people that can take his place. Today's audience would probably have more sympathy as they understand stress more and would just think he needs a bit of a break. The laws in Vienna have not been used for a long time and now are useless at protecting the people and the city, much like a rusty set of armour that has been Ã¢â¬Å"hung by th'wallÃ¢â¬ as Claudio describes them.. They normally protect people but they have been discarded and now are useless. Now the city is full of crime depravity and all the suburbs are full of Brothels. The Duke has discarded the laws so that the people of the city like him. He no longer likes his job as he has a lot of responsibility and is depended on. He feels isolated because of all the pressure of people behind him trying to get his power. He is loved by the public for something he isn't and he knows this. All these factors make him very uncomfortable. The duke has two choices for who he could chose to stand in for him Ã¢â¬â Angelo or Esculus. Esculas's name sounds like the word scales implying that he would be balanced and would bring balance to the city. He has a lot of knowledge of the city and is old and wise. Angelo's name sounds like the word angels who are virtuous. He chooses Angelo as he wants to test his virtues. The duke quotes Ã¢â¬Å"Angelo is a man of stricture and firm abstinence.Ã¢â¬ When Angelo is told that he will stand in for the duke he sounds modest but could be pretending. He is probable pretending to be modest and really being obsequious. He tells the Friar that he is going back to the city to see how it is going without him and to see if Angelo is really as virtuous as he seems. In Scene one the duke decides to leave because he can't take the pressure. Whereas in scene two he says he is leaving because he can't control the people. This shows that he is either not sure why he is leaving; he just doesn't want to be the duke any more or he wants to check up on people when he's not there. When the duke is in disguise Lucio says how the duke had been so slack with the laws and how terrible he was. In act one the speech is very rushed and shows us how much of a rush the Duke is in.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Marriage is recognized in society as one man and woman in union for a legal contract. Marriage has numerous definitions, for example, legal and moral provision for generations among humans. This word can represent more than its definition. Marriage for various writers signifies hate, passion, oppression, and euphoria which have been serving as the focal point of many literary works. One example is Ã¢â¬Å"Linoleum RosesÃ¢â¬ , one of the vignettes that make up The House on Mango Street, a coming-of-age novel by Mexican-American writer Sandra Cisneros. Cisneros in this specific vignette reveals the inherent oppressiveness of particular marriages, which by their nature rob people of their independence. In Ã¢â¬Å"Linoleum Roses,Ã¢â¬ Sally is not even in eighth grade and she gets married. Her husband is a marshmallow salesman that she meets at a school bazaar. She moves to another state where their marriage is legal. Sally tells her sister Esperanza about her house and domestic objects that she owns. Sally says that she is in love, but Esperanza believes that Sally just got married to escape. Sally s husband gives her money to buy things, and she enjoys this aspect of being married. Sally claims to be happy, except when sometimes her husband gets angry and one time he kicked a hole through the door. Her husband does not let her go out, talk on the phone, see her friend or even look out the window. Sally spends her day sitting at home, looking around at the pretty things she owns: the towels, theShow MoreRelatedThe House On Mango Street By Sandra Cisneros913 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthan its definition. Marriage for many artists symbolize hate, passion, oppression, euphoria that have been serving as the focus point of many literary works. One example is Ã¢â¬Å"Linoleum Roses Ã¢â¬Å",one of the vignettes that made up Ã¢â¬Å"The House on Mango StreetÃ¢â¬ , a coming-of-age novel by Mexican-American writer Sandra Cisneros. Cisneros in this specific vignette reveals the inherent oppressiveness of all marriages, which by their nature rob people of their independence. Sally is not even eight grades and sheRead MoreHouse on Mango Street Theme981 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHouse on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros is about Esperanza Cordero, a girl living in Chicago struggling to identify who she is. Through the experiences Esperanza encounters, she feels neglected living in a culture where women are considered inferior to men. Observing different figures around her, Esperanza begins to question her own identity, and starts to grab her own power, and eventually decides to be independent. Through metaphors, epiphanies and symbolism, Cisneros conveys that repression andRead MoreThe House On Mango Street Analysis855 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSandra Cisneros is viewed as a strong author for Latinos and specifically women. In her book, The House on Mango Street, Cisneros writes the novel in both English and Spanish. She even dedicates her book to, Ã¢â¬Å"A las Mujeres/To the Women.Ã¢â¬ Throughout the story, Cisneros introduces her audience to many female charac ters and the lives of the characters as well. Esperanza, the protagonist in the House on Mango Street, is followed as she grows older and begins to find herself and her sexuality. This bookRead MoreSocietal Injustices Upon Women2009 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesother hand, the novel Ã¢â¬Å"The House on Mango StreetÃ¢â¬ exemplifies this mindset from the perspective of a little girl, Esperanza. Esperanza is an impoverished girl who desires to become someone who is respected and not objectified. In this way, Chopin and Cisneros delineate the ontogeny of the mental amelioration of women through the usage of imagery and similies/metaphors to exemplify the societal expectations and the violation of gender norms both young and adult women face in life. Imagery provides a senseRead MoreThe House On Mango Street Essay2466 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesfor school use only, reminding me that: Ã¢â¬Å"We canÃ¢â¬â¢t understand you in English.Ã¢â¬ Through this tug-of-war, between both cultures expectations of who I was to be/become, there was a desperate need to find my own identity, away from either culture. Sandra CisnerosÃ¢â¬â¢, The House on Mango Street, documents the need and struggle to find oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own identity, through the narrator EsperanzaÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences growing-up in a predominately Latino community in Chicago. Throughout the book Esperanza tries to understand
Friday, December 27, 2019
Sociology essay Charon (2010) reiterates that humans exist in three realities, which is a physical objective reality, social reality, and a unique. The third reality, a unique, is a product of social reality. It is a private interpretation of the reality that is shown to a person by others. An individual is understood through a society and society through an individual. As individuals we do not draw meaning from objects hence our tendency to act towards things on the basis of meaning attached to them. Human beings can only draw meaning from a person or society as they interact. Individuals actually draw meaning from processes in the context of a relationship within the context of a family or a community. Meanings can only be handled in and modified through an interpretative process and, once a situation is defined as real, it is taken to be real in its consequences. From the context of meaning, which is a core principle of social interaction theory, Turkle (2011) argument that an individual continued interaction with robots as others can diminish us as humans is very true. AIBO is programmed to have personality that matches that of a man. It is not capable of resetting its original personality. It is put in a program that let it show care that is put into it. The robot has to be put under special care. In fact, individuals are capable of getting thoughts out of robots hence the ease to interact with it. The robot actually has artificial intelligence as they neverShow MoreRelatedSo ciology : A Very Good Understanding Of Sociology955 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Prior to this class, I thought that I had a fairly good understanding of sociology. I have since learned and realized how encompassing socially is and how important it can be. Sociology is defined as the study of human social relationships and institutions. It ranges from crime to religion, racial issues and social class, and so on. The purpose of sociology is to understand how actions and consciousness are both shaped and shape cultural and social structures. Sociologists dedicate their livesRead MoreEssay on Understanding the Sociology of Health1980 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesGood Mental Health. 2014. Improving Emotional Health: Strategies and Tips for Good Mental Health. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/mental_emotional_health.htm. [Accessed 13 February 2014]. Anne-Marie Barry, 2008. Understanding the Sociology of Health: An Introduction. 2nd Edition. Sage Publications Ltd. http://www.mass.gov/ago/docs/consumer/keeping-the-heat-and-lights-on.pdf Read MoreUnderstanding Different Sociology Theories And Writing1232 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAcknowledgements: I would like to thank Dr Kai Wang for his contribution in providing the foundation of symbolic interaction to me, allowing me the opportunity of understanding different sociology theories and writing this thesis. I would like to thank the following people for taking time to respond to my questionnaire and for their input which help me apply symbolic interaction to different social issues. They are Naseera, Nadeem, Mohammed, Naseema, Candy, Charmin, Deen, M.Arshaq, Shazia, ShabnamRead MoreUnderstanding Human Behavior Through Sociology1860 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesprovide my understanding on what I have learned in class about the various leadership skills and social justice by showing how taking this course expands my knowledge. 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So while the semester continued I became more and more interested in this class and begun openingRead MoreThe Contribution of Functionalist Sociology to an Understanding of the Role of Education in Society1337 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Contribution of Functionalist Sociology to an Understanding of the Role of Education in Society Works Cited Missing Schools serve a function in a complex industrial society that family and peer groups cannot ( Durkheim,1956) Education is important in society. The structure and processes of education systems are related to the general process of socialisation. All sociologists agree with this, but sociologists have many different views about how societies are structuredRead MoreThe Contribution of Functionalist Sociology to an Understanding of the Role of Education in Society2234 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Contribution of Functionalist Sociology to an Understanding of the Role of Education in Society Functionalists have constructed two questions to help them research education. The first question is. What are the functions of education for society as a whole? and the second question is. What are the functional relationships between the education system and other parts of the social system. Firstly, Functionalism is a theory. A theory based on Ã¢â¬Å"value consensusÃ¢â¬ Read MoreDiscuss the Contribution Feminism Has Made to Our Understanding of the Sociology of Religion. Illustrate Your Arguments with Sociological Examples.2539 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesPaula Gourley Discuss the contribution feminism has made to our understanding of the sociology of religion. Illustrate your arguments with sociological examples. The sociology of religion examines the significance of the role of religion within society. It is not concerned with philosophical or theological issues such as the existence of God. Rather the sociology of religion examines how beliefs and practices affect behaviour, how religion is understood and how it influences social life. It alsoRead MoreSociology: Understanding Different Terms1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin thefts first. The severity of crimes escalates with the passage of time and there is a stage when people love to get money even by killing others. It is a common perception that poor people are criminals. There are views against this common understanding. Many people believe that poor people have faced many hardships in life hence they learn to work hard. Because of the struggle they have made in life, they learn to make their way and they start liking principles. History has witnessed many notableRead MoreBriefly Outline the Distinctive Features of the Sociological Approach to Understanding Human Life and the Illustrate How You Would Use Sociology to Make Sense of Globalisation.1554 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSociology is the systematic, sceptical and critical study of the way that people do things together .ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not a science that simply lists facts and figures about society. Instead it becomes a form of consciousness, a way of thinking, a critical way of seeing the world. It welcomes you to challenge the obvious, to question the world as it is taken for granted and to de-familiarising the familiar. This is what empowers c ritical thinking which triggers the development of the understanding of the human